TKT Preparation
Abstract Noun
An abstract noun is a word for a concept or idea, rather than a physical thing. Examples are happiness, danger and goal.
An adjective is a word that describes a noun, such as big or happy. Some adjectives are formed from participles, such as exciting or amazing.
An adverb is a word that directly describes a verb or an adjective. They include '-ly' words, such as quickly or dangerously. They can express time, manner or degree and include words such as here, very and much.
Articles indicate whether a noun is specific or non-specific. There are three articles in English. They are: a, an and the.
Auxiliary Verb
Auxiliary verbs modify the main verb in a sentence. They are generally forms of BE, DO and HAVE. An example is the word was in He was driving. There are also modal auxiliary verbs, commonly called modal verbs (see below).
Collective Noun
A collective noun is a word for a group of people or things, such as team, bunch or herd.
Comparative Adjective
A comparative adjective is a word used to describe the comparison of two things, such as bigger or smarter. Some comparative adjectives are formed using the word more, such as more intelligent.
Conjunctions link words, phrases or clauses together. Examples are and, but, yet, so, because and until.
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
A countable noun is a noun for an item that can be counted, while an uncountable noun is the opposite. Examples of countable nouns are cars, teeth and trees. Examples of uncountable nouns are water, sugar and advice.
Demonstrative Adjective
Demonstrative adjectives help to specify nouns. The common demonstrative adjectives in English are this, that, these and those.
Demonstrative Pronoun
Demonstrative pronouns indicate specific items and are used in place of nouns. The common demonstrative pronouns in English are this, that, these and those.

Note that demonstrative pronouns are the same words are demonstrative adjectives, but used in a different way.

This boy (demonstrative adjective).

He gave me this. (demonstrative pronoun)
A determiner is a word at the beginning of a noun phrase, which specifies the noun. Examples are the, a, an, another, that, this, those, these, my, your, his, her and so on.
A gerund is the -ing form of a verb that acts as a noun. An example is: Janet enjoys shopping.
An idiom is a word or group of words where the meaning is not literal. For example, when we say it is raining cats and dogs, this is an idiom.
Imperative Verb
An imperative verb issues a direct command. It is the base form of the verb. An example is: Go outside!
An infinitive is the base form of a verb, usually with the word to, such as to see. The zero infinitive is the base form of the verb used without the word 'to', such as wait as in She made him wait.
An intensifier is an adverb that strengthens another word or expression. Examples are really, too, so and quite.
Modal Verb
A modal verb is a kind of auxiliary verb. Modal verbs generally show probability or necessity. Examples are should, might, must and will.
A noun is a word for a person, place, thing or idea. Examples are doctor, restaurant, plate and honesty.
Object Pronoun
An object pronoun is a pronoun used in place of the object of a sentence. Examples are me, him, her and them.
Past participle
The past participle of a verb is the third verb form, such as written (write/wrote/written). Past participles are used in perfect tenses, passive voice and as adjectives.
Phrasal Verb
A phrasal verb is a multi-word verb that consists of a main verb plus a preposition (or adverb). Examples of phrasal verbs are take off, drop by and go on. Phrasal verbs can be made up of three words. An example is look up to.
Plural and Singular Nouns
A singular noun is used to refer to one thing. A plural noun is used to refer to a multiple. Examples of singular nouns are cat, house and goal. Examples of plural nouns are cats, houses and goals.
Possessive Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns
A possessive adjective is simply an adjective that shows possession. Examples are my, your, his and her. An example in a sentence is: This is my car. A possessive pronoun is where a similar word acts as a pronoun (replacing a noun). Examples are mine, yours, hers and his. An example in a sentence is: This car is mine.
Prepositions show the relationship between two things. Examples are in, out, off, up and at.
Prepositional Phrase
A prepositional phrase is a phrase containing a preposition and a noun. Examples are in the car, on the table and up a tree.
Present Participle
A present participle is the -ing form of a verb used as a verb or an adjective. An example is driving in this sentence: I am driving to work.
Proper Noun
A proper noun is the name of a person, place or thing. Examples are Robert and Australia.
Quantifiers describe quantities. They are adjectives or adjective phrases. Examples are some, many and plenty of
Question Tag
A question tag (or tag question) is a short question that comes at the end of a sentence and references the subject and main verb. An example is: He crashed the car, didn't he?
Reflexive Pronoun
A reflexive pronoun is used when the subject and the object are the same. Reflexive pronouns end in -self or -selves. Examples are myself, yourself and ourselves.
Superlative Adjective
A superlative adjective is a word used to show the highest degree of a characteristic, such as biggest or smartest. Some superlative adjectives are formed using the word most, such as most intelligent.
A verb is a word describing an action or state. Examples are run, speak, think and be.